Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
Acid –base reaction
Acid –base reaction
Loading in …3
×
1 of 32

3 acid base reactions

3

Share

Download to read offline

Acid Base Reactions = metals oxide + non-metal oxide & pH

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

3 acid base reactions

  1. 1. TYPES OF REACTIONS Review!!
  2. 2. Synthesis Example C + O2 2 OOC +  O OC OOC OOCC C C C C C C C C C C General: A + B  AB C
  3. 3. Decomposition Example: NaCl 3 General: AB  A + B Cl Na Cl + Na
  4. 4. Single displacement Example: Zn + CuCl2 4 ZnClCl Cu + General: AB + C  AC + B ClCl Zn Cu+
  5. 5. Double displacement Example: MgO + CaS 5 General: AB + CD  AD + CB SO Mg Ca + OS Mg Ca +
  6. 6. Combustion Reaction • A reaction that releases carbon dioxide and water • A hydrocarbon and oxygen combine to form CO2 and H2O. CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O General: AB + CD  CO2 + H2O
  7. 7. ACID BASE REACTIONS Metals, Non-metals & Neutralizations
  8. 8. METALS
  9. 9. Metal + O2  metal oxide + H2O  Base • Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides • Metal oxides always form solids • Metal oxides also called basic oxides or basic anhydrides • Metal oxides react in water to form bases
  10. 10. Group 1 Metals (Alkali Metals) • Potassium burns in O2 to make potassium oxide 4K(s) + O2(g) → 2K2O(s)
  11. 11. Group 1 Metals (Alkali Metals) • Potassium burns in O2 to make potassium oxide 4K(s) + O2(g) → 2K2O(s) • Potassium oxide dissolves in H2O K2O(s) + H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq)
  12. 12. Group 1 Metals (Alkali Metals) • Potassium burns in O2 to make potassium oxide 4K(s) + O2(g) → 2K2O(s) • Potassium oxide dissolves in H2O K2O(s) + H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq) • Alternatively you can add potassium directly to water 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) • KOH used to make soap, liquid fertilizer, paint remover, cosmetics Synthesis Single Displacement
  13. 13. Group 2 Metals (Alkali Earth Metals) • Formation of Metal oxide 2Ca(s) + O2(g) → 2CaO(s) • Formation of base CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) • Lime (CaO) added to soil for growth of plants that prefer basic soil. • Ca(OH)2 used in bricks and as a food additive.
  14. 14. Other Metals - Zinc • Formation of metal oxide: Zn + O2  ZnO • Formation of base: ZnO + H2O  Zn(OH)2 • ZnO is often used as an additive to plastic, glass, cement, paints, ointments, sealants, foods, batteries and fire retardants. • One major use of Zn(OH)2 is as an absorbent in surgical dressings.
  15. 15. NON-METALS
  16. 16. Non-Metal + O2  N-M oxide + H2O  Acid • React in O2 to form non-metal oxides • Non-metal oxides are often fluids (gas/liquid) • N-M oxides known as acidic oxides • Non-metal oxides react in water to form acids
  17. 17. Nitrogen • Nitrogen reacts with O2 to make nitrogen dioxide N2(g) + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g) • Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in H2O to form nitric acid 3NO2(g) + H2O(l) → 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g) • Nitrogen dioxide contributes to air pollution. • Nitric acid can be used in explosives for munitions and demolition. It can also be used for pigments in inks and dyes. Synthesis
  18. 18. Phosphorus • Formation of Non-Metal oxide 4P(s) + 5O2(g) → 2P2O5(s) • Formation of acid P2O5(s) + 3H2O(l) → 2H3PO4(aq) • Diphosphorus pentoxide is used as a very strong dehydrating agent. • Phosphoric acid used to make fertilizers, home cleaning products and rust inhibitor.
  19. 19. Carbon • Formation of non-metal oxide: C + O2  CO2 • Formation of acid: CO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2CO3(aq) • Carbon dioxide is produced from the burning of fossil fuels and contributes to global warming • Carbonic acids are a major factor in ocean acidification.
  20. 20. NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
  21. 21. Acids + Bases • The H+ ions from the acid can combine with the OH- ions from the base H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) --> HOH(l) This process is called Neutralization the resulting solution is neutral (because water is set to pH 7)
  22. 22. • The reaction of an acid and a base produces a salt and water Acid + Base  Salt + Water
  23. 23. • The reaction of an acid and a base produces a salt and water Acid + Base  Salt + Water 2HCl(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Stomach acid Antacid No more heartburn!!
  24. 24. • A salt is a compound made up of oppositely-charged ions Neutralization = double displacement reactions
  25. 25. Ex. 1) Predict the products, balance the equation, state chemical names, and classify each as either an acid, base, salt or water. __Ca(OH)2 + __H3PO4 
  26. 26. Ex. 1) Predict the products, balance the equation, state chemical names, and classify each as either an acid, base, salt or water. _Ca(OH)2 + _H3PO4  _Ca3(PO4)2 + _H2O
  27. 27. Ex. 1) Predict the products, balance the equation, state chemical names, and classify each as either an acid, base, salt or water. 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4  Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O
  28. 28. Ex. 1) Predict the products, balance the equation, state chemical names, and classify each as either an acid, base, salt or water. 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4  Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O Calcium hydroxide + phosphoric acid  calcium phosphate + water
  29. 29. Ex. 1) Predict the products, balance the equation, state chemical names, and classify each as either an acid, base, salt or water. 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4  Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O Calcium hydroxide + phosphoric acid  calcium phosphate + water Base + Acid  Salt + Water
  30. 30. Ex. 2) In there is an industrial accident, a whole barrel of sulfuric acid (a dangerously strong acid) was spilled. Show putting a strong base, such as calcium hydroxide, can neutralize the acid. Sulfuric acid + calcium hydroxide 
  31. 31. Ex. 2) In there is an industrial accident, a whole barrel of sulfuric acid (a dangerously strong acid) was spilled. Show putting a strong base, such as calcium hydroxide, can neutralize the acid. Sulfuric acid + calcium hydroxide  calcium sulfate + water
  32. 32. Ex. 2) In there is an industrial accident, a whole barrel of sulfuric acid (a dangerously strong acid) was spilled. Show putting a strong base, such as calcium hydroxide, can neutralize the acid. Sulfuric acid + calcium hydroxide  calcium sulfate + water H2SO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  CaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

×