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Food sovereignty: Initiatives and lessons from India
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Food sovereignty, biodiversity, july 27, 2005

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Lecture on food security by Dr. P. V. Sateesh, DDS

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Food sovereignty, biodiversity, july 27, 2005

  1. 1. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY AND BIODIVERSITY
  2. 2. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY FOOD SECURITY • Most important driving force behind NGO moment • Making people food secure: major discourse in ’80s & ’90s • Many ways of tackling food security • Enlarged into livelihood security in recent times
  3. 3. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • 1996. World Food Summit in Rome • Large countries of the North made very little commitment • Trade as a means of food security • Ground being readied for TNCs
  4. 4. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • World food trade runs into hundreds of billion dollars • Food & seed as new tools for imperialism • Sends alarm bells around the world
  5. 5. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • Discourse shifts to Food Sovereignty • A term coined by Via Campasina • One’s right to produce one’s own food in one’s own location • Community food sovereignty
  6. 6. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • Denying food that is culturally appropriate is a political act • In opposition, food sovereignty emphasises on the right to produce food at ones own location, appropriate to ecology and culture
  7. 7. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • …implies ecological techniques and stewardship of agriculture, agricultural biodiversity, moving away from intensive agriculture, creation of rural employment and diverse food cultures.
  8. 8. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • At the national and local levels it advocates Farmers' Control Regime that involves access to land, farmers’ control over seed and ending women's exclusion. Farmers’ control regime also means No Patents on Life as well as farmers’ access to markets
  9. 9. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY • At the global level it wants reform in global food trade which involves ensuring end to "dumping" and subsidies for intensive agriculture. Ensuring fair prices for farmers and protecting local markets. Preference for domestic food crops before export crops.
  10. 10. CROPS OF TRUTH BIODIVERSITY BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF DECCAN, INDIA
  11. 11. Farmers’ Perceptions • Moisture requirements • High storability • No weeding required • Tasty foods
  12. 12. Farmers’ Perceptions • Cooking quality • Commercial value • High productivity
  13. 13. MOISTURE REQUIREMENT • Pesari & Minumu are comparatively delicate and need the first few heavy showers of the monsoon. Therefore, they are sown during the first fortnight of the Mirgam
  14. 14. MOISTURE REQUIREMENT • Crops like lentils are sown on low- lying areas where there is extra moisture present in the soil.
  15. 15. MOISTURE REQUIREMENT Little Millet and Niger demand the least soil moisture; sown in the fifth or sixth fortnight, in Asaleru, almost 10 weeks after monsoon, especially if rains fail to arrive.
  16. 16. DETERMINANTS • High storability Foxtail millet, Kodo millet, Little millet • Tastiest foods Pigeonpea daal, Pearl millet roti and Foxtail millet • Suitable for particular soil types Pigeonpea
  17. 17. STORABILITY, TASTE
  18. 18. DETERMINANTS • Most fertile soils needed Chilli and Sunflower • High commercial value Pigeonpea and Sesame • Highly productive[barkath] Bishop’s weed
  19. 19. MARKET & PRODUCTIVITY
  20. 20. DETERMINANTS • Soil types Black soils : Sorghum, chickpea, mustard Red soils, Pachajonna, pigeonpea and hibiscus. Extent of soil type determines crop mix.
  21. 21. DETERMINANTS
  22. 22. DETERMINANTS • Need to raise two or more crops during a year To optimise production farmers go for the best crop mix within their multiple cropping system. On black soils they grow green and black grams during the rainy Kharif and harvest them in about three months. A range of winter crops are planted in the same space.
  23. 23. OPTIMISING PRODUCTION
  24. 24. DETERMINANTS • Crop durations Gareeb Jonna, an early maturing variety of sorghum is grown because it is harvested within three months of sowing. At this point of time there is hunger at home. All the dry fodder would be over and the cattle would begin to starve. Foxtail millet and Gareeb Jonna are grown to meet both these food and fodder needs.
  25. 25. ANSWERING HUNGER
  26. 26. DETERMINANTS • Need for fodder Sorghum, pearl millet, Cowpea, dollichos etc. • Need for cash Bishop’s Weed • Food security Kharif sorghum • Fuel wood Pigeonpea • Thatching/fencing material • Need for fibre Amaranthus, Sunhemp
  27. 27. FOOD & FIBRE
  28. 28. DETERMINANTS • Special foods for specific festivals Pyalala Jonna (Popping Sorghum) which is used in Nagula Panchami • Rejuvenating soil fertility and ‘strength’ Niger, horsegram • Need for oil Safflower
  29. 29. FOR SOIL & OIL
  30. 30. DETERMINANTS • Need to prepare land for the next crop Sunhemp • Medicinal properties Mustard, Traditional sugarcane, Korra • To ward off/reduce pest incidence Marigold
  31. 31. MEDICINE & PESTS
  32. 32. DETERMINANTS • Most prone to pest attack Pigeonpea, field beans and Dolichos lablab • Most labour involved [in processing] Little Millet and Foxtail millet • No Weeding required Niger and Sunhemp
  33. 33. DETERMINANTS
  34. 34. DIVERSITY & CULTURE • Pyalala jonna For Nagula Panchami • Korralu For Peddala Amavasya • Chickpea For Polelu for many festivals
  35. 35. DIVERSITY & CULTURE • GATLU, THE GERMINATION RITUAL • SOONYAM PANDUGA, CHECKING THE GROWTH
  36. 36. DIVERSITY & CULTURE ENDLAGATTE PUNNAM • To show how many varieties are grown on my field; and to thank Goddess for these varieties
  37. 37. SEED SELECTION • Vaasana, the odour • Vanne, the colour • The grain appearance • The size

Lecture on food security by Dr. P. V. Sateesh, DDS

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