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Internet for Development

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Lesson given to PhD students of QUA_SI.

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Internet for Development

  1. 1. <ul><li>Roberto Polillo </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Informatics, Systems and Communication </li></ul><ul><li>University of Milano Bicocca </li></ul>Internet for development
  2. 2. The discipline: ICT4D <ul><li>Information and Communication Technologies for Development “ The application of ICT within the field of socio-economic development, international development and human rights ” (Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinariety, different approaches, philosophies, goals, ... </li></ul><ul><li>We bring with ourselves our story, … </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>What is development – and how to measure it </li></ul><ul><li>ICT penetration and digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of the Internet as a global resource </li></ul><ul><li>Internet for development: a quantic gap </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Some conclusions </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. What is development – and how to measure it
  5. 5. What does it mean &quot;development&quot;? <ul><li>Development means different things to different people </li></ul><ul><li>At its core, it involves concepts of &quot;progress&quot; and &quot;growth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Development is a multi-dimensional entity, involving empowerment, participation, …. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be simply equated to the growth of GNP or personal purchasing power… </li></ul>
  6. 6. However you measure it… <ul><li>A world of differences </li></ul>
  7. 7. GDP per capita, 2010 Blue: above world GDP per capita (USD 10,700, purchasing power parity) Orange: below world GDP per capita Source: IMF International Monetary Fund, from Wikipedia
  8. 8. Country classification by yearly GNI per capita (World Bank, 2008) 48.000 35.500 (In 2010, tresholds increased by 3%) ≤ 975 ≤ 3.855 ≤ 11.905 > 11.906 GNI per capita (US$)
  9. 9. Country classification by yearly GNI per capita (World Bank): 2010 US$ 1,005 US$ 3,975 US$ 12,275 Low income countries Lower middle income countries Upper middle income countries High income countries USA Italy US$ 50,000
  10. 10. L east D eveloped C ountries <ul><li>In 2010: </li></ul><ul><li>49 countries </li></ul><ul><li>833 ml people </li></ul>LDC in 2007, from Wikipedia <ul><li>LDC defined by UN, based on 3 criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Low income </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Economic vulnerability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Almost half the world live on less than $2.50 a day http://www.globalissues.org
  12. 12. HDI : H uman D evelopment I ndex <ul><li>Developed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme, www.undp.org ), from 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Covering almost 200 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic dimensions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEALTH : Life expectancy at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDUCATION : Education Index ( various indices, changed in 2011) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCOME : Per-capita GNI Index </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. HDI divide in 2011 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index
  14. 14. Other indicators Life expectancy Poverty rates Unenployment rates Disposable income Education levels … Natural resources Pollution & waste Human health … Satisfaction with life Health conditions Standard of living Family life Jobs …. www.beyond-gdp.eu
  15. 15. 2. ICT penetration and digital divide
  16. 16. What a decade! <ul><li>The first decade of the new millennium saw extraordinary progress in ICT – globally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global mobile cellular penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global internet penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous technological improvements in ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet as a pervasive resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The lag between developed and developing world can be considered to be less that 10 years – on average </li></ul>
  17. 17. (can be downloaded from the net at no cost) A fundamental source, highly recommended: www.itu.org
  18. 18. The global picture <ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With 5.9 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions, global penetration reaches 87%, and 79% in the developing world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In LDCs two thirds of people have cellular coverage and mobile cellular penetration has reached 34% - up from 5% five years earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One third of the world population is online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% of Internet users are below the age of 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of internet users are in China </li></ul></ul>Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
  19. 19. The global growth, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 12% 2011 est: 86.7%
  20. 20. Mobile cellular penetration growth Source: ITU
  21. 21. Mobile cellular subscription divide, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 6 yrs lag
  22. 22. Mobile cellular penetration by 2011* http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States Much higher that the USA penetration in 2004 (43%)
  23. 23. Rural population covered by a mobile signal, 2002-2008 ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Internet Users divide, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 This is higher than global fixed (16%) and mobile (12%) telephone penetration in 2000 Lag about 11 years
  27. 27. Internet users growth <ul><li>In developing countries, 30% of those under 25 use the Internet </li></ul>Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
  28. 28. Internet penetration, by region, 2011* http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
  29. 29. Global bandwidth growth 7x in 5 years
  30. 30. Broadband: what is it? <ul><li>&quot;Broadband&quot; is a technology neutral term, often used as a marketing buzzword, with different meanings </li></ul><ul><li>ITU defines broadband internet access as a [fixed or wireless] public access to the internet at a downstream speed equal or greater than 256 Kbps (March 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband is supported by different technologies with different speed </li></ul>
  31. 31. Broadband requirements: examples <ul><li>YouTube: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>min 500 Kbps; optimal: 1 Mbps or higher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>voice call: 100 Kbps recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video call: 128-500 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group video call (3 people): 512 Kbps – 2 Mbps download </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streaming movies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,5 Mbps suggested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Mbps suggested for HD </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Download time vs bandwidth
  33. 33. Bandwidth requirements for different applications Source: www.scotland.gov.uk / GEN/Targeting innovation
  34. 34. Broadband on Europe Digital Agenda <ul><li>By 2013: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring basic broadband to all Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 2020: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that all Europeans have access to internet speed of above 30 Mbps and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% or more European households subscribe to Internet connections above 100 Mbps </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Broadband divide Fixed broadband subscribers Mobile broadband subscribers Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  36. 36. Cost: IPB ( I CT P rice B asket ) <ul><li>Developed by ITU to compare the price of TLC in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a mix of use using fixed telephone, mobile cellulare and fixed broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in % to the average monthly income </li></ul><ul><li>2010: Ranges from 0,2% (Monaco) to 71,6% (Niger) Italy: 0,9% (28th); USA: 0,6% (12th) </li></ul>
  37. 37. IPB index Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  38. 38. Price divide by IPB values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  39. 39. Price divide by IPB values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  40. 40. Ultra-low cost mobiles
  41. 41. IDI ( I CT D evelopment I ndex) <ul><li>Developed by ITU to measure the level and evolution over time of ICT in different countries, and to measure the digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a 3 stage model of ICT development </li></ul><ul><li>Computed for 159 countries, 2002, 2007 & 2008 </li></ul>
  42. 42. The 3 stages model of IDI 1 2 3 Access sub-index Use sub-index Skills sub-index 11 indicators IDI
  43. 43. IDI components Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2009
  44. 44. Digital divide by IDI values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  45. 45. WSIS <ul><li>W orld S ummit on I nformation S ociety (held Geneva, 2003 and Tunis, 2005) to discuss ICT4D issues </li></ul><ul><li>The Geneva Action Plan of Action identified 10 targets to be achieved by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010, ITU issued the report &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010 (available on the net) </li></ul>
  46. 46. The WSIS 10 targets (2003-5) <ul><li>1. To connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points </li></ul><ul><li>2. To connect universities , colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>3. To connect scientific and research centres with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>4. To connect public libraries , cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>5. To connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>6. To connect all local and central government departments and establish websites </li></ul><ul><li>and e-mail addresses </li></ul><ul><li>7. To adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the </li></ul><ul><li>information society, taking into account national circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>8. To ensure that all of the world ’ s population have access to television and radio services </li></ul><ul><li>9. To encourage the development of content and put in place technical conditions in </li></ul><ul><li>order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>10. To ensure that more than half the world ’ s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach </li></ul>
  47. 47. 3. Evolution of the Internet as a global resource
  48. 48. Evolution of ICT paradigms Mainframe computing Client-server computing Cloud computing 1965 1985 2005+
  49. 49. Evolution of the Internet 1995+ <ul><li>Company web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Web portals </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Web as an interface </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>HYPERTEXT, eCOMMERCE 2005+ <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>UGC </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative creation </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable contents </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>SOCIAL MEDIA 1985+ <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>File transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>COMMUNICATION NETWORK
  50. 50. Time person of the year Christmas 2006 Christmas 2010 Christmas 2011
  51. 51. Evoluzione di Internet 2010+ Mobile access
  52. 52. Internet for development E-government E-entertainment E-inclusion Broadband Internet access E-health E-education E-commerce E-communication
  53. 53. Broadband as an enabler <ul><li>Telehealth & telemedicine: broadband can facilitate provision of medical care to unserved and underserved population through remote diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and consultation with specialists (telehealth & telemedicine) </li></ul><ul><li>Education, culture & entertainment : broadband can overcome geographical and financial barriers to provide access to a wide range of educational, cultural and recreational opportunities and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development / E-commerce: broadband can promote economic development and revitalization through electronic commerce by creating new jobs and attracting new industries; providing access to regional, national, and worldwide markets </li></ul><ul><li>E-government: e-government can help streamline people's interaction with government agencies, and provide information about government policies, procedures, benefits and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Public safety and homeland security: broadband can help protect the public by facilitating and promoting public safety information and procedures Broadband communication services : broadband provides access to new telecommunications technologies such as VOIP </li></ul><ul><li>People with disabilities: … </li></ul>www.broadband.gov
  54. 54. Example: E-health <ul><li>Electronic health records : enabling the communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Telemedicine : physical and psychological treatments at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer health information: use of online resources on medical topics by healthy individuals or patients </li></ul><ul><li>Health knowledge management : best practice guidelines, online resources for the healthcare professionals, epidemiological tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual healthcare teams : healthcare professionals collaborating and sharing information on patients through online communication tools </li></ul><ul><li>M-health : using mobile devices in collecting patient health data, providing healthcare information, real-time monitoring of patient vitals, and direct provision of care </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare online information systems: for hospital and healthcare professionals: appointment scheduling, patient data management, work schedule management and other administrative tasks surrounding health </li></ul>
  55. 55. ICT4D: two basic approaches - ICT for productivity - From the experience and models of developed countries - Emphasis on [large] organizations - ICT for human development - From the needs of local communities and individuals - New models of services, collaboration and interaction based on local needs and experiences &quot;TOP DOWN&quot; &quot;BOTTOM UP&quot;
  56. 56. The application long-tail Source: www.kiwania.net
  57. 57. Three phases of ICT4D <ul><li>ICT4D 0.0: mid 1950s -late 1990s Focus on computing/data processing for back-office applications in large governement and private sector organizations in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>ICT4D 1.0: late 1990s – late 2000s Millennium Development Goals and development of Internet in rich countries  investment in ICT infrastructure and programmes. The diffusion on Telecentres. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT4D 2.0: late 2000s onwards The impact of mobile phones, Web 2.0, and more emphasis on “ bottom up ” innovation </li></ul>
  58. 58. 4. Internet for development: a quantic gap
  59. 59. Three big revolutions… These tools can change completely the approach of ICT4D, and its results… Never, in the story of technology, we had at our disposal a set of powerful tools like those resulting from the evolution of the internet in the last few years…
  60. 60. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-conference </li></ul>
  61. 61. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconference </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio/TV </li></ul>2011 est: 86.7% Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  62. 62. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-conference </li></ul>2003: Skype, Linkedin, MySpace, 2004: Facebook, Flickr, Orkut 2005: Youtube, Ning, Zoho 2006: Twitter , Google Docs 2007: 2008: Livestream 2009: Foursquare 2010: 2011: Google+
  63. 63. 2. Cloud computing <ul><li>Computing power accessible from the net (cloud) </li></ul><ul><li>Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs </li></ul>
  64. 64. 2. Software as a service <ul><li>Computing power accessible from the net (cloud) </li></ul><ul><li>Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs </li></ul>Application
  65. 65. Before t Entry barrier Entry barrier (CAPEX) <ul><li>- Hw & sw client & server </li></ul><ul><li>- K-H (systems & apps) - Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Organization set-up </li></ul>Sustainability (OPEX) <ul><li>- hw & sw maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>- Recurrent fees </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul>
  66. 66. After t - Hw/sw client - Client maintenance - Recurrent fees (applications and connectivity) Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) Entry barrier
  67. 67. 2. Software as a service Developing country Developed country A new role for NGO?
  68. 68. Application virtualization
  69. 69. <ul><ul><li>“ Ecosystems” of open-source software components, developed and maintained by large communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online services easily integrable to provide higher level services (embedding & mashup technologies) </li></ul></ul>3. Applications building blocks 3. I building block per le applicazioni
  70. 70. 5. Case studies
  71. 71. Case study: Web portal + mobile phone CGNet Swara <ul><li>Voice-based portal, freely accessible via mobile phone (Chhattisgarh, India) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows anyone to report and listen stories of local interest </li></ul><ul><li>Reported stories are moderated and become available for playback online as well as over the phone </li></ul><ul><li>http://cgnetswara.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kbAFwZMs4vA </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thinkinnovation.org/it/innovation/innovation.php?c=5&id=105 </li></ul>
  72. 72. http://rise.mahindra.com/cgnet-swara-the-rise-of-the-citizen-journalist/
  73. 73. Case study: Laptop + mobile for communication via SMS: FrontlineSMS VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=hEK0dTWgqzQ# ! www.kiwanja.net
  74. 74. Case study: Low-cost SMS platform for healthcare : www.medicmobile.org <ul><li>Medic Mobile develops and extends existing open-source platforms, including FrontlineSMS, to create connected, coordinated health systems </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. community health worker coordination, community mobilization for vaccination, logistics and supply chain management, outine data collection, mapping of health services, … </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal infrastructure requirements </li></ul>
  75. 75. http://medicmobile.org/2010/01/11/art-with-impact/
  76. 76. http://medicmobile.org/2011/03/02/help-extend-medical-care-in-india-with-3-simple-clicks/
  77. 77. Case study: Children hospital La Mascota, Managua (Nicaragua)
  78. 78. The project: pediatric emergency in Nicaragua <ul><li>Only children hospital in Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><li>Connected via Internet to the departmental hospitals of Nicaragua, to support children emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Unified emergency procedures, remote support and data collection </li></ul>Children hospital «La Mascota», Managua
  79. 79.
  80. 80. The network Policlinico Milan La Mascota Managua VPN
  81. 81. Case study: E-health Points in Punjab <ul><li>http://www.thinkinnovation.org/it/innovation/innovation.php?c=2&id=70 </li></ul><ul><li>Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZItaMLGP0s&feature=player_embedded# ! </li></ul>
  82. 82. Case study: www.cure4kids.org <ul><li>A web-based education project of St.Jude Children ’ s Research Hospital (Memphis, USA) to help health professionals in countries with limited resources to improve survival rates of children with catastrophic deseases </li></ul><ul><li>A free, global online medical education and collaboration network </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars, papers, oncopoedia, interest groups, international live online web conferences </li></ul>
  83. 83.
  84. 84. www.cure4kids.org: growth Start: Oct 2002 Oggi: 23.000 utenti in 176 Paesi
  85. 85. Case study: crowdsourcing <ul><li>Crowdsourcing to mobile phone owners simple jobs requiring cellular (e.g. translation in local language,, input of local data,…) </li></ul><ul><li>http://txteagle.com , Kenia </li></ul>
  86. 86. Case study: job requests <ul><li>Posting requests of low-skilled jobs to web sites and SMS </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.babajob.com , India </li></ul>
  87. 87. 6. Some conclusions
  88. 88. The pace of change <ul><li>ICT is changing fast… </li></ul>My grandaddy (born 1883) typewriter: I learned typing on it … and now I use this
  89. 89. The pace of change… <ul><li>Piattaforme open source </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi di hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi online per costruzione e hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi di pagamento online </li></ul><ul><li>Social network sites </li></ul><ul><li>Photo, video, slides and document sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>Telefonia IP </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>Online application suites </li></ul><ul><li>Online intranet </li></ul><ul><li>Geolocalizzazione </li></ul>Skype Twitter Google Apps Paypal Foursquare Drupal Wordpress Joomla Altervista Wordpress.com Wikia Webs Ning Weebly LinkedIn Facebook YouTube Slideshare Flickr Google Docs Zoho
  90. 90. The pace of change <ul><li>People is changing slowly… </li></ul><ul><li>… but the world is getting younger and younger </li></ul><ul><li>… and the new generations have grown (and will grow) with technology </li></ul>We must target the new generations as the driving force for change
  91. 91. Internet is a lot more… <ul><li>The “new” ICT (Internet) is different, and can give a lot of value… </li></ul><ul><li>… for a low cost </li></ul><ul><li>The main enabler will be broadband [mobile] access to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>… because it gives access to lots of things (definitely, not only information!) </li></ul>
  92. 92. An agenda for change <ul><li>Invest in broadband [mobile] access </li></ul><ul><li>The software is there, and is (almost) free </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills to identify, mix and integrate existing software and services </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of utility computing to avoid building local infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on applications requirements, prototyping and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Share results over the net </li></ul>
  93. 93. In three words… 1. Connect, connect, connect 2. Learn and experience the new paradigms 3. Understand local needs
  94. 94. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.rpolillo.it </li></ul>
  • pipcarus

    Mar. 24, 2012

Lesson given to PhD students of QUA_SI.

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