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Communication PIC-Microcontroller Lab
     Course by JAOM Center, Feb. 2013




    GSM Module




           Instructor:
...
GSM Definition

 Short for Global System for Mobile Communications
 One of the leading digital cellular systems.
 GSM w...
GSM Types
 Three types of GSM differ according to the frequency band used
     in each one and the number of ARFCNs;

1. ...
GSM Features
 Compatibility that we can use the same mobile to make calls in several
    countries.
   Noise Robust such...
GSM Network Components
GSM Network Components
 Mobile Station (MS)
   o Mobile equipment (ME). Every ME has a unique identity number
     called...
GSM Network Components
   Network Switching System (NSS)
It contains the function of the GSM Network as well as subscribe...
GSM Cell Structure

Macro-cells(3 to 35 km)
Micro-cells(0,1 to 1 km)
Cell Mode Layout
 Omni-directional cell

    Adopt omni-directional antenna,      O

    the    overall      directiona...
Terrestrial Interfaces
 2M bit/s trunks (E1):
  o Each 2M bit/s link provides 32*64 kbps timeslot. These
    timeslot car...
PDH & SDH

PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
  Plesio: near, Chronos: time

  E1 = 2.048 Mb/s

SDH: Synchronized Digit...
PDH, E1
HumanVoice: 4000 Hz
Sampling Rate: 8000 Hz (2 x 4000)
8 bits/sample

                  8000 x 8 = 64 kbit/s = E0
 ...
PDH, E1
PDH, E1

Problems with PDH:
   Synchronization
   Limited network management (Alarms, …)
   Limited capacity growth (Da...
SDH, STM1

Advantage of SDH:
   Synchronization
   High transmission rates
   Simple add & drop
   Reliability
SDH Frame
PDH to SDH
Air Interface
 Phase modulation is easy to implement for digital signals and
  provide good noise tolerance when applied ...
TDMA Frame
TDMA, FDMA & CDMA
Channels on Air Interface

The digital air interface has two channel types:
 Physical:
  o The medium over which the info...
Logical Channels
 Traffic Channels (TCHs):
  o The traffic channel consists of speech and data.
  o Control channels asso...
Logical Channels
Outgoing Call
1, MS sends dialed number to BSS
2, BSS sends dialed number to MSC
3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed
the r...
Incoming Call
1. Calling a GSM subscribers
2. Forwarding call to GSMC
3. Signal Setup to HLR
4. 5. Request MSRN from VLR
6...
Data Rate Evolution
Data Rate Evolution
 2G                                     3G
   GSM: Data rate: 9.6 Kbps               WCDMA(Wide ba...
GSM Module
 Any GSM module is using the normal GSM network
 GSM modules can be communicated to PIC-microcontroller
  usi...
AT Commands
                             Call control
Command                              Description
ATA                ...
AT Commands
              MS Text mode
    Command          Description
    AT+CSMS          Select message service
    AT...
AT Commands, Calls
Command CHECK COM              Positive Response
AT<CR><LV>                     OK

Command DIAL       ...
AT Commands, SMS
Command SET                     Positive Response
AT+CMGF=<mode><CR><LV>          <mode>: 0 = PDU Mode, 1...
Lab

 SMS – Call to MS


 Use PIC project
GSM Module
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GSM Module

A GSM module presentation as a part of one complete course about using communication modules along with PIC-Micro-controller
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GSM Module

  1. 1. Communication PIC-Microcontroller Lab Course by JAOM Center, Feb. 2013 GSM Module Instructor: Mohsen Sarakbi
  2. 2. GSM Definition  Short for Global System for Mobile Communications  One of the leading digital cellular systems.  GSM was first introduced in 1991 and as of the end of 1997; GSM service was available in more than 100 countries and has become the de standard in Europe and Asia.  GSM uses narrowband TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency.
  3. 3. GSM Types  Three types of GSM differ according to the frequency band used in each one and the number of ARFCNs; 1. GSM: Use frequencies between 890-915 MHz UL and 935-960 DL (Band of 25 MHz) with 124 ARFCNs. 2. EGSM: Use frequencies between 880-915 MHz UL and 925- 960 DL (Band of 35 MHz) with 174 ARFCNs. 3. DCS1800: Use frequencies between 1710-1785 MHz UL and 1805-1880 MHz DL (Band of 75 MHz) with 374 ARFCNs  Where ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number) is a pair of frequencies, one to transmit (Up Link) and one to receive (Down Link).
  4. 4. GSM Features  Compatibility that we can use the same mobile to make calls in several countries.  Noise Robust such that digital GSM is better than analog because it suffer from noise therefore using digital will reduce the noise interference.  Flexibility and increased capacity due to equipment is smaller in size.  Security and confidentiality such that GSM offers increase defense against eavesdropping  Flexible handovers in using GSM than by using analog systems.  Enhanced range services such that the services available are speech services including Telephony and emergency calls, Data services including Short Message Service (SMS), cell Broadcast and supplementary services which charge extra including number identification, call Baring, call forwarding and call completion.
  5. 5. GSM Network Components
  6. 6. GSM Network Components  Mobile Station (MS) o Mobile equipment (ME). Every ME has a unique identity number called International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI), it enables stolen mobile to be detected. o Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)  Base Station System (BSS) It is linked to MS using air interface and contains the following components: o Base Transceiver System (BTS) which provides air interface connection to MS, it support one cell or more. o Base Station Controller (BSC) used to control one or more BTS, conveys information to/from BTS and connects terrestrial circuits and air interface.
  7. 7. GSM Network Components  Network Switching System (NSS) It contains the function of the GSM Network as well as subscriber and Mobility Management (MM) database. It includes: o Mobile Station Centre (MSC) used as a call switcher exchange for mobile originated or terminated subscriber traffic. o Home Location Register (HLR) which adds information including subscriber ID (IMSI and MSISDN), o Visitor Location Register (VLR) creates a temporary local data base copied from the HLR for subscribers who are active in the area it covers avoiding the need to constantly refer back to the HLR (Roaming).  Operational and Maintenance System (OMS) A central network entity that controls and monitors other entities, including the QoS provided by the network. It is divided into two parts: o Network Management Centre (NMC) which provides global network management responsible for operation and maintenance at net level. Its function also includes:  Oversees Alarms o Operational and Maintenance Center (OMC) which provides regional network management and should support events and alarms, faults, performance configuration and security.  Monitors network service quality
  8. 8. GSM Cell Structure Macro-cells(3 to 35 km) Micro-cells(0,1 to 1 km)
  9. 9. Cell Mode Layout  Omni-directional cell  Adopt omni-directional antenna, O  the overall directional propagation characteristic is the same.  Directional cell  In general, cell with multi-sector is in common use. Every directional cell adopts directional antenna.
  10. 10. Terrestrial Interfaces  2M bit/s trunks (E1): o Each 2M bit/s link provides 32*64 kbps timeslot. These timeslot carry: Speech or Data  155Mbit/s STM1 o 63xE1s  Ethernet: o Max Ethernet frame size 1500Byte
  11. 11. PDH & SDH PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Plesio: near, Chronos: time E1 = 2.048 Mb/s SDH: Synchronized Digital Hierarchy Synchronized, Standard STM1= 155 Mb/s
  12. 12. PDH, E1 HumanVoice: 4000 Hz Sampling Rate: 8000 Hz (2 x 4000) 8 bits/sample 8000 x 8 = 64 kbit/s = E0 64 kbit/s x 32 = 2.048Mbit/s = E1 0 16 31
  13. 13. PDH, E1
  14. 14. PDH, E1 Problems with PDH:  Synchronization  Limited network management (Alarms, …)  Limited capacity growth (Data Rate)  Difficulty in adding or dropping a line
  15. 15. SDH, STM1 Advantage of SDH:  Synchronization  High transmission rates  Simple add & drop  Reliability
  16. 16. SDH Frame
  17. 17. PDH to SDH
  18. 18. Air Interface  Phase modulation is easy to implement for digital signals and provide good noise tolerance when applied to digital it is known as (PSK).  PSK require a wide BW for transmission because abrupt phase changes produce high frequency components, Gaussian PSK (GPSK) reduces the addition of high frequency components, therefore reducing the BW required.  Such that GMSK filters the signal through a Gaussian filter, rounding the corners of the signal, the result signal is used to phase shift the carrier signal.
  19. 19. TDMA Frame
  20. 20. TDMA, FDMA & CDMA
  21. 21. Channels on Air Interface The digital air interface has two channel types:  Physical: o The medium over which the information is carried and represent by the 8 timeslots occupy the ARFCN for exactly one eighth of the time. o The 8-timeslots sequence is called TDMA Frame  Logical: o The information carried along the physical channel. GSM logical channels consist of Traffic Channels (TCHs) and Control Channels (CCHs).
  22. 22. Logical Channels  Traffic Channels (TCHs): o The traffic channel consists of speech and data. o Control channels associated to the traffic channels are: o Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) used by the MS for reporting signal strength and quality measurements. o Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) used when rapid signaling is required between MS and BTS, example handover  Control Channels (CCHs), and fall into 3 groups: o Broadcast Control Channel BCCH o Common Control Channel CCCH o Dedicated Control Channel DCCH
  23. 23. Logical Channels
  24. 24. Outgoing Call 1, MS sends dialed number to BSS 2, BSS sends dialed number to MSC 3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requested service. If so, MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call. 4, MSC routes the call to GMSC 6, GMSC routes the call to local exchange of called user 7,8 Answer back 9,10 Answer back(ring back) tone is routed from called user to MS via GMSC,MSC,BSS http://spvp.zesoi.fer.hr/predavanja/extra/GSMdemo.swf
  25. 25. Incoming Call 1. Calling a GSM subscribers 2. Forwarding call to GSMC 3. Signal Setup to HLR 4. 5. Request MSRN from VLR 6. Forward responsible MSC to GMSC 7. Forward Call to current MSC 8. 9. Get current status of MS 10.11. Paging of MS 12.13. MS answers 14.15. Security checks 16.17. Set up connection http://spvp.zesoi.fer.hr/predavanja/extra/GSMdemo.swf
  26. 26. Data Rate Evolution
  27. 27. Data Rate Evolution  2G  3G  GSM: Data rate: 9.6 Kbps  WCDMA(Wide band CDMA)  RSS: Data rate : 0.348 – 2.0  2.5G Mbps  GPRS (General Packet Radio  HSPA: Data rate: 7.2 Mbps service): Data rate: 14.4 - 115.2 Kbps  3.5G (3G+)  HSPA+: Data rate: 21 – 42 Mbps  2.75G  EDGE (Enhanced data rate  4G for GSM Evolution): Data  LTE (Long Term Evaluation): Data rate: 547.2 Kbps rate: 100 Mbps
  28. 28. GSM Module  Any GSM module is using the normal GSM network  GSM modules can be communicated to PIC-microcontroller using normal serial USART protocol  Communication is being done using regular GSM modem AT Commands.
  29. 29. AT Commands Call control Command Description ATA Answer command ATD Dial command ATH Hang up call ATL Monitor speaker loudness ATM Monitor speaker mode ATO Go on-line ATP Set pulse dial as default ATT Set tone dial as default AT+CSTA Select type of address AT+CRC Cellular result codes http://www.expertcore.org/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=3549
  30. 30. AT Commands MS Text mode Command Description AT+CSMS Select message service AT+CPMS Preferred message storage AT+CMGF Message format AT+CSCA Service centre address AT+CSMP Set text mode parameters AT+CSDH Show text mode parameters AT+CSCB Select cell broadcast message types AT+CSAS Save settings AT+CRES Restore settings AT+CNMI New message indications to TE AT+CMGL List messages AT+CMGR Read message AT+CMGS Send message AT+CMSS Send message from storage AT+CMGW Write message to memory AT+CMGD Delete message
  31. 31. AT Commands, Calls Command CHECK COM Positive Response AT<CR><LV> OK Command DIAL Positive Response ATD<number><CR><LV> OK Command ANSWER Positive Response ATA<CR><LV> After RING, OK Command end Positive Response ATH<CR><LV> OK Parameters <CR> = ASCII character 13 <LV> = ASCII character 10
  32. 32. AT Commands, SMS Command SET Positive Response AT+CMGF=<mode><CR><LV> <mode>: 0 = PDU Mode, 1 = Text Mode OK Command DELETE Positive Response AT+CMGD=<index><CR><LV> <index>: Index number of the message , OK Command SEND Response AT+CMGS=<number><CR><LV><message><CTRL-Z> +CMGS:<mr> OK Parameters <CR> = ASCII character 13 <LV> = ASCII character 10 <CTRL-Z> = ASCII character 26 <mr> = Message Reference
  33. 33. Lab  SMS – Call to MS  Use PIC project
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A GSM module presentation as a part of one complete course about using communication modules along with PIC-Micro-controller Thanks.

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