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Doing Interviews Slide 1 Doing Interviews Slide 2 Doing Interviews Slide 3 Doing Interviews Slide 4 Doing Interviews Slide 5 Doing Interviews Slide 6 Doing Interviews Slide 7 Doing Interviews Slide 8 Doing Interviews Slide 9 Doing Interviews Slide 10 Doing Interviews Slide 11 Doing Interviews Slide 12 Doing Interviews Slide 13 Doing Interviews Slide 14 Doing Interviews Slide 15 Doing Interviews Slide 16 Doing Interviews Slide 17 Doing Interviews Slide 18 Doing Interviews Slide 19 Doing Interviews Slide 20 Doing Interviews Slide 21 Doing Interviews Slide 22 Doing Interviews Slide 23 Doing Interviews Slide 24 Doing Interviews Slide 25 Doing Interviews Slide 26 Doing Interviews Slide 27 Doing Interviews Slide 28 Doing Interviews Slide 29 Doing Interviews Slide 30 Doing Interviews Slide 31 Doing Interviews Slide 32 Doing Interviews Slide 33 Doing Interviews Slide 34 Doing Interviews Slide 35 Doing Interviews Slide 36 Doing Interviews Slide 37 Doing Interviews Slide 38 Doing Interviews Slide 39 Doing Interviews Slide 40 Doing Interviews Slide 41 Doing Interviews Slide 42 Doing Interviews Slide 43 Doing Interviews Slide 44 Doing Interviews Slide 45 Doing Interviews Slide 46 Doing Interviews Slide 47 Doing Interviews Slide 48 Doing Interviews Slide 49 Doing Interviews Slide 50 Doing Interviews Slide 51 Doing Interviews Slide 52 Doing Interviews Slide 53 Doing Interviews Slide 54 Doing Interviews Slide 55 Doing Interviews Slide 56 Doing Interviews Slide 57 Doing Interviews Slide 58 Doing Interviews Slide 59 Doing Interviews Slide 60 Doing Interviews Slide 61 Doing Interviews Slide 62 Doing Interviews Slide 63 Doing Interviews Slide 64 Doing Interviews Slide 65 Doing Interviews Slide 66 Doing Interviews Slide 67 Doing Interviews Slide 68 Doing Interviews Slide 69 Doing Interviews Slide 70 Doing Interviews Slide 71 Doing Interviews Slide 72
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Doing Interviews

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How to carry out qualitative interviews, different concepts to bear in mind.

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Doing Interviews

  1. 1. Doing Interviews
  2. 2. Introduction to Interview Research Seven Steps of an Interview Inquiry Epistemological issues of Interviewing Ethical Issues When Carrying Out Interviews Designing an Interview Study Conducting an Interview Interview Quality Interview Analysis
  3. 3. Introduction to Interview Research
  4. 4. • Interviews have been about for a long time! • Thucydides interviewed participants in the Peloponnesian war (Ancient Greek) • Research on interviews hasn’t been about for as long • Posh term for this is epistemology research
  5. 5. • Interviews are a valid form of scientific research! • Freuds psychoanalytic theory based to a large extent on interviews with patients (1963) • Piaglet theory on child development formed through interviews with children (1930) • Design of consumer products heavily focused by interviews, with Dichter (1960) leading in this)
  6. 6. Seven Steps of an Interview Inquiry
  7. 7. 1 Thematising Purpose of the investigation
  8. 8. 2 Designing Plan the design of the study
  9. 9. 3 Interviewing Conduct the interviews
  10. 10. 4 Transcribing Prepare for Analysis
  11. 11. 5 Analysing Creating Meaning
  12. 12. 6 Verifying Is what you’re saying correct?
  13. 13. 7 Reporting Communicate Findings
  14. 14. Epistemological issues of Interviewing
  15. 15. Interviews attempt to understand the themes of lived daily world from subjects’ perspectives. It is very similar to an everyday conversation but has a specific approach and technique that is used.
  16. 16. Life World
  17. 17. Meaning ?
  18. 18. Qualitative Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod
  19. 19. Descriptive & Specificity
  20. 20. Qualified Naïveté
  21. 21. Focus & Change
  22. 22. Positive Experience
  23. 23. Think of yourself as a traveller…
  24. 24. …and also as a miner
  25. 25. Ethical Issues When Carrying Out Interviews
  26. 26. Lots of ethical issues can take place in interviews
  27. 27. • What are the beneficial consequences of the study? • How can informed consent of participants be obtained? • Who should give consent, subject or other? • How much information about the study needs to be given in advance, and what can wait till the debrief? • How is confidentiality protected? • How can identity be disguised • Who has access to the interviews • How does the researchers role affect the study • Will publishing the study have any consequence, positive or negative?
  28. 28. Informed Consent Confidentiality Consequences Researcher Integrity
  29. 29. Designing an Interview Study
  30. 30. Designing an interview study involves planning the procedures and techniques (the how) of the study
  31. 31. Temporal Dimension The key thing to work out is your… (when you should think about different parts)
  32. 32. read the steps 7
  33. 33. Keep the end point in sight
  34. 34. Tell me about X, Y and Z Tell me about X and Z
  35. 35. I’m not interviewing bears!
  36. 36. Difficult to generalise findings and test hypothesis Difficult to analyse and make sense of interviews
  37. 37. 15 ±10
  38. 38. Don’t go in with no knowledge! I IV V
  39. 39. • Open nature of interviews promotes production of new knowledge! • Take account of the 7 stages of the interview journey from the start • Interviewing can be seen as less of a method and more of a craft, it relies on you as an interviewer knowing enough about the subject to keep up with the interviewee
  40. 40. Conducting an Interview
  41. 41. A qualitative interview is usually semi-structured. There are a sequence of themes to be covered, as well as some prepared questions. There can be an openness to change of sequence and question order to allow answers to be given and stories to be told by participants
  42. 42. Careful attention needs to be given to setting the stage for an interview when briefing subjects before, and debriefing subjects after, the interview How will briefing effect the knowledge that is produced in the interview?
  43. 43. Briefing to define the situation for the subject Debrief with more information INTERVIEW
  44. 44. Create an interview script
  45. 45. Researcher Questions Interviewer Questions Which form of learning motivation dominates in high schools? Do grades promote an external, instrumental motivation at the expense of a motivation for learning Does learning for grades socialise to working for wages
  46. 46. Researcher Questions Interviewer Questions Which form of learning motivation dominates in high schools? Do grades promote an external, instrumental motivation at the expense of a motivation for learning Does learning for grades socialise to working for wages Do you find the subjects you learn important? Do you find learning interesting in itself? What is your main purpose in going to high school? Have you experienced a conflict in what you want to read and what you have to read to get a good grade? Have you been rewarded with money for getting good grades? Do you see any connection between money and grades?
  47. 47. Interviewer questions should be brief and simple.
  48. 48. Introductory Questions • Can you tell me about… • Do you remember an occasion when… • What happened in the episode you mentioned… These questions can have rich descriptions of participants experiences, allowing you to look at the experiences that are being examined
  49. 49. Follow-Up Questions • A nod • ‘mmm’ • [repetition of key words] • …actual follow up questions Extends through the curious, persistent, and critical attitude of the interviewer
  50. 50. Probing Questions • Could you say something more about that • Can you give a more detailed description of what happened • Do you have further examples of this Purpose is to pursue the answer, you know that it’s there - you just need to get to it!
  51. 51. Direct Questions • … Directly introduce a topic. Better left to the later parts of interviews after participants have given spontaneous answers
  52. 52. Silence • “…” Instead of talking and cross-examining participants, give moments of silence for people to reflect
  53. 53. The art of the second question
  54. 54. Grades are often unjust because very often - very often - they are only a measure of how much you talk and how much you agree with the teacher’s opinion• Silence • Hmm, mm… • How much you talk? • Can you tell me more about that? • Could you give some examples of what you are saying • Have you experienced this yourself? • You feel that the grades are not fair? • You feel that the grades do not express your own abilities • When you say that they depend on how much you talk, do you mean bluffing? • When you mention the importance of following the teachers opinion, are you thinking of wheedling? • Are you sure that is correct?
  55. 55. The quality of an interview not only relies on the questions posed; the way that the interviewer reacts after an answer may be just as important.
  56. 56. Interview Quality
  57. 57. #ShakespeareForResearch
  58. 58. Hamlet Do you see yonder cloud that’s almost in shape of a camel? Polonius By th’ mass and ‘tiz like a camel indeed Hamlet Methinks it is like a weasel Polonius It is back’d like a weasel Hamlet Or like a whale? Polonius Very like a whale Hamlet (aside) They fool me to the top of my bent Short interview Leading Questions Reliability of Answer Power of Interviewer
  59. 59. The quality of the original interview is decisive for the quality of the analysis and reporting of the interview There are no criteria for what makes a good interview
  60. 60. Three general quality criteria for good interviews concern the richness of the interviewee’s answers, the length of relevant answers, and the clarification of the interviewee; statements
  61. 61. Interview Analysis
  62. 62. We’ll cover qualitative analysis in more detail later on, this will give you a rough idea of the different types of analysis that are possible
  63. 63. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subjects describe their life world during the interview. They spontaneously tell what they experience, feel, and do in relation to a topic
  64. 64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subjects themselves discover new relationships during an interview, see new meanings in what they experience and do so because of their own descriptions
  65. 65. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Interviewers condense and interpret the meaning of what is said with this happening during the interview itself. Interviewer then sends their back to the subject for validation.
  66. 66. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Recorded interview is analysed by the interviewer alone. Interview is structured for analysis and analysis involves developing the meanings of the interviews.
  67. 67. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Optional Re-interview. When the analysis has occurred the researcher can reinterview subjects and give interpretations back. Subjects get an opportunity to comment on what is being said.
  68. 68. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Option Action - Subjects may choose to change their thinking or behaviour based on the interview and self-report this back to the researcher.
  69. 69. Introduction to Interview Research Seven Steps of an Interview Inquiry Epistemological issues of Interviewing Ethical Issues When Carrying Out Interviews Designing an Interview Study Conducting an Interview Interview Quality Interview Analysis
  70. 70. Information in this presentation was based on…

How to carry out qualitative interviews, different concepts to bear in mind.

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