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Designing Qualitative Research Slide 1 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 2 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 3 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 4 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 5 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 6 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 7 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 8 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 9 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 10 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 11 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 12 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 13 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 14 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 15 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 16 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 17 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 18 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 19 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 20 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 21 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 22 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 23 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 24 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 25 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 26 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 27 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 28 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 29 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 30 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 31 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 32 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 33 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 34 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 35 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 36 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 37 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 38 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 39 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 40 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 41 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 42 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 43 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 44 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 45 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 46 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 47 Designing Qualitative Research Slide 48
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Designing Qualitative Research

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How to design qualitative research studies, ethical considerations, and design principles.

Designing Qualitative Research

  1. 1. Designing Qualitative Research
  2. 2. What is Qualitative Research Getting the Right Sample Qualitative Research Design Organising A Qualitative Research Study Ethics in Qualitative Research In Summary Designing for Different Qualitative Methods
  3. 3. On a scale of 1 to Amaze-Ballz, how good was this thing that I’ve spent a year making? 1 Amaze-Balls
  4. 4. On a scale of 1 to Amaze-Ballz, how good was this thing that I’ve spent a year making? 1 Amaze-Balls
  5. 5. “A short user testing study was conducted with 5 people, and even though they were my friends it was totally impartial! People were asked to rate my system on a scale of 1 to Amaze-Balls and were told in advance that I had spent a year making it. Every participant ranked this system as Amaze- Balls and therefore this project was a success.”
  6. 6. What is Qualitative Research
  7. 7. Quantitative Qualitative 10010101 00111001 11010110 00011010 “Lorem ipsum dolor…”
  8. 8. Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, and memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
  9. 9. Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, and memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
  10. 10. • Growing academic discipline • Not unique to Computing • Can be combined with quantitative research methods for richer outcomes • Analyse structure with quantitative and process with qualitative • Use qualitative findings to support quantitative results • Assist in interpretation of results
  11. 11. Approaches to Subjective Viewpoints Description of the Making of Social Situations Interpretation of Underlying Structures Methods of Data Collection Semi-Structured Interviews Narrative Interviews Focus Groups Ethonography Participant Observations Recording Interactions Collecting Documents Recording Interactions Photography Film Methods of Interpretation Theoretical Coding Content Analysis Narrative Analysis Conversation Analysis Discourse Analysis Document Analysis Objective Hermeneutics
  12. 12. Getting the Right Sample
  13. 13. Sampling is a way for you to deliberately select cases, materials, or events for constructing a corpus of evidence. This will allow you to study the phenomenon of interest in a constructive way
  14. 14. Don’t sample every member in a population group
  15. 15. What aspects are you interested in? • Age • Gender • Technology Usage • …
  16. 16. people sites devices
  17. 17. • Need to make sure we are selecting the right cases when conducting any study • Who would you include when conducting work looking at the following…
  18. 18. Smart Phone Accessibility
  19. 19. New RGU Website
  20. 20. Tips on putting together samples: • Integrate extreme cases • Computing student with lots of technology experience • Grandma that has never used a computer • Look at typical cases • Who's the average Joe? • Maximal variation approach • Biggest difference between samples
  21. 21. • Sampling in qualitative research often follows a different logic than standard research • There should be a rationale according to what cases and materials are being used • Sampling can address different levels depending on the research question and the methods that you apply • Finding access to the right people and fields has to be planned and can be difficult
  22. 22. Qualitative Research Design
  23. 23. #science
  24. 24. Interest in Issue Research Design Doing Research Research Perspectives Methods Research Questions Audience and Writing Intended Generalisation Intended Comparison Sampling Criteria for Quality
  25. 25. • Are you comparing between groups, people, artefacts? • Include enough examples so that and differences can be seen as group or case specific • What comparisons do you want to observe, plan the study accordingly Using Comparisons:
  26. 26. Example Design Social Representation of Health held by health Professionals Outpatient
 (Medical)
 General Practitioners Male and Female Berlin and Hannover Privileged and Poor Areas Outpatient
 (Nursing)
 Nurses Male and Female Berlin and Hannover Privileged and Poor Areas Specifics of concepts Perception of health care needs Starting points for appropriate care Methods (N = 32) Focus Groups Document Analysis of Training Programs Methods (N = 32) Focus Groups Document Analysis of Training Programs
  27. 27. • Has clear focus and is built around a clear research question • Reduces the focus of the research • Makes the research manageable in terms of resources and time • Is linked to background on the research area • Happens because of reflection, planning, and decision making A Good Design…
  28. 28. Organising A Qualitative Research Study
  29. 29. • Lots of things to consider, this isn't just doing the research study • There’s a lifecycle of activities that has to be worked though • There’s also a lot of things that can go wrong (sorry)
  30. 30. Literature Review Development of Interview Schedule and Pre-Test Analysis of Interviews Fieldwork, Finding and Interviewing Participants Linking results back to Literature Final Report and Publications
  31. 31. • No Access: Potential of not getting access to the right people • Matching Methods and Fields: Thinking about participants and environments • Neglecting Participants Perspective: What to participants expect from being part of your research? • Associations instead of Analysis: Don’t be tempted to focus on individual aspects, look at the bigger picture
  32. 32. Ethics in Qualitative Research
  33. 33. • Ethical issues in all types of research should be addressed • Many bodies have rules of ethical conduct that should be adhered too • Principles of ethically sound research should be followed at all times
  34. 34. • Informed consent means that no one should be involved in research as a participant without knowing about this and without having the chance of refusing to take part • Deception of participants (covert observation or by giving false information) should be avoided • Privacy should be respected and confidentiality should be guaranteed and maintained • Accuracy of the data and its interpretation should be the leading principle. • No omission or fraud with the collection or analysis of the data should occur in research practice
  35. 35. Preparation Relevance Researchers Participants
  36. 36. Research Questions Informed Consent DeceptionVulnerable People
  37. 37. Access and Sampling Informed Consent Vulnerable People No Harm Selection
  38. 38. Collecting Data Disturbance Being Pushy Being Ignorant
  39. 39. Designing for Different Qualitative Methods
  40. 40. • There are a lot of different qualitative methods that can be used to get data from people • We’re going to spend the next few weeks looking at these individually but…
  41. 41. Case Study Comparative Study Longitudinal Study Retrospective Study Interviews Conversation Discourse Analysis Ethnographic Observation Analysing Data Analysing Data Interviews Interviews Ethnographic Observation Focus Groups Visual Materials
  42. 42. • Every qualitative method has a number of things that you need to consider • Need to reflect on each of these aspects before and during a research study
  43. 43. Interviews Research Question Personal Experiences and meaning Sampling Persons as cases Comparison Cases or dimensions Basic Design Comparative or retrospective Resources Experience in interviewing, transcription Stepping Stones Finding the “right” cases Ethics Informed consent, confidentiality, relationship with interviewee
  44. 44. Focus Groups Research Question Sensitive Topics Sampling Groups and participants Comparison Between and in groups Basic Design Comparative or snapshop Resources Recording Equipement Stepping Stones Having the ‘right’ participants in the group, participant drop- out Ethics Vulnerable people, group dynamics
  45. 45. Ethnography Research Question Social processes, foreshadowed problems Sampling Sites, cases, within cases Comparison Sites, people Basic Design Case Study Resources Getting there, documentation Stepping Stones Accessing ‘invisible phenomena Ethics Informed consent, anonymity
  46. 46. What is Qualitative Research Getting the Right Sample Qualitative Research Design Organising A Qualitative Research Study Ethics in Qualitative Research In Summary Designing for Different Qualitative Methods
  47. 47. Information in this presentation was based on…
  • TammyMarie3

    Nov. 28, 2021
  • GilchristDsouza3

    May. 24, 2021
  • yuanchengwei

    May. 5, 2018

How to design qualitative research studies, ethical considerations, and design principles.

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