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Conversation Discourse and Document Analysis

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Understanding how to analyse language, either through conversations or document analysis.

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Conversation Discourse and Document Analysis

  1. 1. Conversation, Discourse, and Document Analysis
  2. 2. Studying Discourse Generating an Archive The Practicalities of Recording Transcribing Audio and Video Materials Exploring Conversations Exploring Documents
  3. 3. Studying Discourse
  4. 4. Discourse is a study of language and how it is used Language is never treated as a neutral, transparent, means of communication
  5. 5. FREEDOM FIGHTER KILLS POLITICIAN TERRORIST KILLS POLITICIAN Which one is true? Which one is correct? Which one is factual?
  6. 6. I AM OLD Which one is true? Which one is correct? Which one is factual? I AM YOUNG I AM A DOCTOR I AM NOT A DOCTOR
  7. 7. People studying discourse are interested in how language is used in certain contexts. The focus is on how specific identities, practices, knowledges, or meanings are produces by describe something in just that way over another
  8. 8. Our understanding of things, concepts or ideas that we might take for granted are not somehow natural or pre-given but rather the product of human actions and interactions, human history, society and culture.
  9. 9. UNIVERSITY
  10. 10. PLASTIC
  11. 11. ELEPHANT
  12. 12. Generating an Archive
  13. 13. Data you have to generate Data that already exists
  14. 14. Interview Transcripts Handwritten and Typed Field Notes Official Documents distributed by Research Team Patient Information Leaflets Consent Forms Funding Applications Research Reports Academic Research Papers and Books Leaflets, handouts and newspaper cuttings Websites Archive Sources
  15. 15. Document Based Sources • Primary Sources: historically contemporary and/or first hand accounts • Secondary Sources: historically or spatially distant and/or second hand accounts
  16. 16. Audio and Video Based Sources • Radio and Television programmes • News Interviews • Televised Debates • Documentaries • Talk Shows • Your own material
  17. 17. You should generate an archive - a diverse collection of materials that enable you to engage with and thing about the specific research problem or question Your archive could contain document-based sources as well as audio and visual-based sources
  18. 18. Read other academic work on your specific topic and find out what research materials they used and how they collected them
  19. 19. Rather than solely relying on researcher-initiated audio and visual based materials (e.g. interviews and focus groups), some academics argue that you should focus on naturally occurring data
  20. 20. The Practicalities of Recording
  21. 21. Audio Recorder or Video Camera Additional Batteries External Microphones Notepad and Pen A good working knowledge of how to set up and use this equipment
  22. 22. Learn about your recording equipment prior to entering the field! Just keep playing with it as often as you can
  23. 23. Note-taking after the encounter Note-taking during the encounter Audiotaping the encounter Videotaping the encounter
  24. 24. Video Recording Positives and Negatives • Records non-verbal conduct • Aids the transcription process • Participants may be less likely to agree to take part • Participants may take a long time to get accustomed to the equipment • An additional researcher may have to operate the camera
  25. 25. Recording at a Field Site
 (e.g. Ethnographic Work) • What form of recording is acceptable to the participants? • What form of recording is feasible in this specific site? • Focus on: • The faces, gestures, and bodies of the participants • Any tools or equipment or objects that are being used • Any documents being used
  26. 26. Transcribing Audio and Video Materials
  27. 27. No-one smiles this much when they are cutting a courgette!
  28. 28. Describing the Scene On a simple level, transcript can be a description of the recorded event
  29. 29. Describing the Scene Ben has been asked to prepare a cucumber - to peel and de-seed it. Mary and Tim offer Ben two different, contrasting ways to prepare that cucumber Very little access to how this specific interaction emerged
  30. 30. Describing the Scene Ben has been asked to prepare a cucumber - to peel and de- seed it. Mary notices the cucumber is frozen. She leans over the table, picks the cucumber up in one hand, picks up a knife in the other and then starts to inspect it, turning it over in her hands. She smiles and she waits for a gap in the talk between Ben and Tim and then says, with some humour in her voice “it’s frozen” Better level of detail, but this can be very difficult to write out in full Doesn’t give you a detailed structure of what happened
  31. 31. TheBasicTranscript 1 Mary Its frozen. 2 (pause) 3 Tim Is it? 4 May Yeah ((laughs)). I don’t think you can use it 5 (pause) 6 Ben It is frozen 7 8 Mary Yeah. The bottom of the fridge is 8 Ben Ice cold 9 Mary Yeah. I’ll see if there’s part of it that isn’t 10 (pause) 11 Mary Yeah. 12 Tim Is it all frozen? 13 Mary No, this part of it’s fine. Okay, when you peel it 14 Ben Uh huh 15 Mary Slice it in four lengthways 16 Ben Oh and then just ((overlap)) 17 Mary a n d t h e n ((overlap)) just take the seeds out 18 Tim Or alternatively slice it in half and use a teaspoon and run it along 19 Mary You can choose whichever method you prefer 20 Tim And obviously there is going to be politics ((Mary 21 laughs)) depending on which method you choose 22 Mary Absolutely. No there won’t 23 Ben Secretly there will be though 24 Mary Heh? 25 Ben Secretly there will be ((Mary laughs) Extract 1 (The politics of cucumbers : Kitchen 10: 2.17-2.17
  32. 32. TheBasicTranscript 1 Mary Its frozen. 2 (pause) 3 Tim Is it? 4 May Yeah ((laughs)). I don’t think you can use it 5 (pause) 6 Ben It is frozen 7 8 Mary Yeah. The bottom of the fridge is 8 Ben Ice cold 9 Mary Yeah. I’ll see if there’s part of it that isn’t 10 (pause) 11 Mary Yeah. 12 Tim Is it all frozen? 13 Mary No, this part of it’s fine. Okay, when you peel it 14 Ben Uh huh 15 Mary Slice it in four lengthways 16 Ben Oh and then just ((overlap)) 17 Mary a n d t h e n ((overlap)) just take the seeds out 18 Tim Or alternatively slice it in half and use a teaspoon and run it along 19 Mary You can choose whichever method you prefer 20 Tim And obviously there is going to be politics ((Mary 21 laughs)) depending on which method you choose 22 Mary Absolutely. No there won’t 23 Ben Secretly there will be though 24 Mary Heh? 25 Ben Secretly there will be ((Mary laughs) Extract 1 (The politics of cucumbers : Kitchen 10: 2.17-2.17 Mixture of Extract number, descriptive title, technical title Descriptive names used for each person. Each line has a number Use of lines makes it look like structured conversation. But notice ((overlap))
  33. 33. How much detail to include? Argued by many that transcripts should be verbatim accounts of what transpired in the interview. Should not be tidied up to make them sound better
  34. 34. How much detail to include? Argued by many that transcripts should be verbatim accounts of what transpired in the interview. Should not be tidied up to make them sound better Pauses Short pause in tasing denoted by a series of dots (…) Number of dots can be used to signify amount of time that has passed Laughing, Coughing etc. Indicate in parenthesis e.g. (coughs), (laughs) Interuptions Indicate speech is broken off at mid sentence by including a hyphen. e,g. What do you- Overlapping speech Use a hyphen to indicate the interruption for speaker A, and then use (overlapping) to indicate the interruption for speaker B Garbled speech Flag words that are not clear with square brackets and question marks. Use a number of x to show that speech cant be understood at all. Emphasis Use caps to denote strong emphasis e.g. “He did WHAT” Held Sounds Repeat the sound that are held, separated by hyphens e.g. No-o-o-o-o Paraphrasing Other When someone assumes a voice that indicates a parody use (mimicking voice)
  35. 35. How much detail to include? Can take this one step further (…you won’t though…) Jefferson style transcript
  36. 36. Detail in Video Transcriptions Other things to consider when you are transcribing videos • Gaze - the direction of participants gaze and how it shifts during interactions • Touch - Self-touching and touching others. Touching and manipulating objects • Gestures - actions such as pointing or illustrating • Posture - orientation of head, shoulders, and lower body • Spatial Positioning - Where people are in relation to others • Other Actions - Including walking
  37. 37. Exploring Conversations
  38. 38. 1 Sue Wonder how he found out an all that 2 (0.4) 3 Fiona I:::: I don’t know through work or Kay probably Does Fiona know? Most people would say that Fiona is displaying a hunch Is she saying “Don’t hold me accountable for the accuracy of this information!” Looking beyond the simple words
  39. 39. 1 John So what do you think about bicycles on campus 2 Judy I think they’re terrible 3 John Sure is about a MILLION of ‘em 4 Judy eh heh 1. John invites Judy to talk about a topic 2. Judy talks about the topic 3. John then gives his perspective on the same topic and his perspective closely fits with Judy’s Exploring a mundane moment in talk
  40. 40. 1 Dr How’s Bobby doing? 2 Mo Well he’s doing pretty good you know especially in the school. I explained to the teacher what you told me that he might be sent to a special class maybe, that I was not sure. And he says you know I asks his opinion, an’ he says that he was doing pretty god in the school. Now he thinks he’s not gonna need to be sent to another school3 Dr He doesn’t think he’s gonna need to be sent? 4 Mo Yeah that he was catching on a little bit but hu more you know like I said, that he needs a- you know I was ‘splaining other that I’m you know that I know for sure that he needs some special class or something. 5 Dr Wu’ shauna you think his problem is? 6 Mo Speech. 7 Dr Yeah, his main problem is you know, a language problem. 8 Mo Yeah, language Do caution
  41. 41. We follow a structure in most conversations. Thing about a phone call: Structural Organisation • Opening - Say hellos and sometimes work out who is talking and is it the person you wanted to speak to • Reason for call - introduce reason for getting in touch • Discussion - May or may not go on for a long time • New topic emerges - Again, may or may not happen • Discussion of new topic • Close - Say goodbyes.
  42. 42. Most of the time we’re used to seeing conversations that have agreement and acceptance Refusals and Disagreements 1 A Well, will you help me (out 2 B (I certainly will 1 A It’s really a clear lake, isn’t it? 2 B It’s wonderful Agreement happens immediately, with no gap in the talk, and sometimes even overlapping.
  43. 43. Sometimes we have to deal with refusals and disagreements… Refusals and Disagreements 1 A Wanna come down ’n have a bit a’ lunch with me? 2 B Wul yer real sweet hon, uhh, let… 3 A D’you have sumps else? 1 C And we were wondering if there’s anything we can do to help 2 B 0.7 Well that’s most kind Heatherton… At the moment no…because we’ve still got the bo:ys at home
  44. 44. Main difference is the inclusion of the following actions: Refusals and Disagreements • Delays: gaps before responses, or delays before an answer is given • Hesitations: like ‘mm’ ‘erm’ and in-breath and out-breath • Prefaces: like ‘well’ and ‘uh’, agreement tokens like ‘yeah’ • Mitigations: apologies and appreciations Why is this important though? Gives information about how different groups can deal with rejection and alternative theories
  45. 45. Exploring Documents
  46. 46. Thinking about Documents • How did you read the document? • Did you take notes on a separate piece of paper? • How do your notes relate to or transform the text? • Was it a photocopy? • Did you read sections out loud to others? • Where were you reading this? • With Friends? • In the Library? Think about a time where you have been doing additional research about a module topic* *lol
  47. 47. Document Analysis isn’t just about the Document Need to examine the material culture of where and how this is happening • Things • Technology • Artefacts • Built Environment
  48. 48. Studies of how documents - and other objects and technologies - feature in and are used in mundane interactions can help us throw new light on the structures of social life.
  49. 49. Ideas on the Documents you create • That you describe how you generated, worked with, and analysed your materials. • Checked and re-checked your ideas against materials and searched for instances that might contradict your claims • Your main or central analytic points give the reader detailed access to the materials that led you to make these claims • That your ideas have been checked against previous work by other authors in this topic • That you have, if possible, presented or discussed your findings with those that you have studied Different solutions available to you to demonstrate to others that your argument is convincing. Different ways to do this include:
  50. 50. Studying Discourse Generating an Archive The Practicalities of Recording Transcribing Audio and Video Materials Exploring Conversations Exploring Documents
  51. 51. Information in this presentation was based on…
  • GilchristDsouza3

    May. 24, 2021
  • NoraAbtan

    Mar. 28, 2019
  • MaryanneChimbayo

    Feb. 22, 2019
  • IrfanSubhani3

    Mar. 23, 2018
  • arjunreghunath2

    Feb. 16, 2018

Understanding how to analyse language, either through conversations or document analysis.

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