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Cultivationtheory
T H EORISTS
GerbNER& GROSS
Larry GROSS
35 years teaching communication at the
University of Pennsylvania before joining USC
Annenberg in 2003 as depu...
GEORgegerbner
August 8, 1919 ‒ December 24, 2005
Doctoral dissertation, "Toward a General
Theory of Communication," won US...
impETUS
1968:93%
Source: Parents Television Council
Pervasiveness
2/3of children watch inthe bedroom
EACH YEAR, The AVERAGE youth ...
8000
murders by
the age of 12
Cultural
indicators project
Identify and track the
cultivated effects of television
on viewers; whether
watching televisio...
t h eORY
Positivist. Empirical.
Sociopsychological & sociocultural (Social control).
Represented a shift from the limited effects p...
Cultivation
TV contains so much violence,
"people who spend the most
time in front of the tube
develop an exaggerated beli...
PROCESS
Studied televisionfor
22 years. Quantity of
violence in programs
are found to be stable
over time.
Correlated cont...
CHANCES OF INVOLVEMENT WITH VIOLENCE
Light viewers predicted their weekly odds of being involved in
violence were 1 in 100...
VIEWS ABOUT TV
Fundamentally different. Only
medium in history with which people
can interact with throughout their life.
...
3b’s of television
Blurs traditional distinctions of
people s views of their world.
Blends TV s realitiesinto our
cultural...
resonance
Accessibility principle
Mainstreaming
Mean worldindex
t h eORY
critique
Methodology does not match conceptual reach of the theory. (Potter 1994)
Failed to differentiate violence in different typ...
RAVES
Macro- and
micro-level
theories
Cognizant of television s unique role
Provides basis for
social change
Applies empir...
Relatedresearch
In 2003, Hargreaves and Tiggemann
studied the impact of viewing televised
images of female attractiveness ...
You know, who tells the
stories of a culture really
governs human behavior.
It used to be the parent, the
school, the chur...
Bryant, J., & Miron, D. (2004). Theory and research in mass communication. Journal of
Communication, 54(4): 662-704.
Gerbn...
dadaBELTRAN
dadaspeaks.com
dadaspeaks@gmail.com
bootsLIQUIGAN
Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis
Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis
Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis
Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis
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Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis

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Presentation and teaching material: Communication Theory - Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner. Research on Television and Violence based on the Cultural Indicators Project

Communication Theory Cultivation Analysis

  1. 1. Cultivationtheory
  2. 2. T H EORISTS
  3. 3. GerbNER& GROSS
  4. 4. Larry GROSS 35 years teaching communication at the University of Pennsylvania before joining USC Annenberg in 2003 as deputy dean of the School of Communication. Specializes in the areas of media and culture, art and communication, visual communication and media portrayals of minorities, Gross helped found the field of gay and lesbianstudies. From 1971 to 1991, co-directed the Cultural Indicators Project
  5. 5. GEORgegerbner August 8, 1919 ‒ December 24, 2005 Doctoral dissertation, "Toward a General Theory of Communication," won USC's award for "best dissertation. Dean of the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania (1964‒1989) 1968 Founded the Cultural IndicatorsProject
  6. 6. impETUS
  7. 7. 1968:93% Source: Parents Television Council Pervasiveness 2/3of children watch inthe bedroom EACH YEAR, The AVERAGE youth spends 1023 hours ON TVand 900hours in school. 1928 GE had the idea of a device that could show moving images using technology to wirelessly broadcast them. 1945 TV sales skyrocketed. 1954 First color broadcast. Early 70s Dominant media force.
  8. 8. 8000 murders by the age of 12
  9. 9. Cultural indicators project Identify and track the cultivated effects of television on viewers; whether watching television may influence viewers' ideas of what the everyday world is like.
  10. 10. t h eORY
  11. 11. Positivist. Empirical. Sociopsychological & sociocultural (Social control). Represented a shift from the limited effects paradigm of Paul Lazarsfeld that had dominated since the 1940s. Is described as a stalagmite theory; the Ice Age analogy. The third most frequently utilized theory; continues to be one of the most popular theories in mass communication research (Bryant & Miron, 2004). O ERiewv
  12. 12. Cultivation TV contains so much violence, "people who spend the most time in front of the tube develop an exaggerated belief in a mean and scary world.
  13. 13. PROCESS Studied televisionfor 22 years. Quantity of violence in programs are found to be stable over time. Correlated content data with survey data ‒ relationship of amount of watching to views on violence. Two groups: Heavy watchers (more than 4 hours per day) Light Watchers (less than 2 hours per day) Heavy viewers were susceptibleto a perception that the world was a dangerous place.
  14. 14. CHANCES OF INVOLVEMENT WITH VIOLENCE Light viewers predicted their weekly odds of being involved in violence were 1 in 100 while heavy viewers said it they were 1 in 10. FEAR OF WALKING ALONE AT NIGHT Women were more afraid than men, but both worried about criminal victimization. PERCEIVED ACTIVITY OF POLICE Heavy viewers believed that police drew their guns more regularly and that about 5% more of society is involved with law enforcement. GENERAL MISTRUST OF PEOPLE People who were heavy viewers tended to see other people s actions and motives more negatively. deltas
  15. 15. VIEWS ABOUT TV Fundamentally different. Only medium in history with which people can interact with throughout their life. Cultivates basic schemas about life on which conclusions are based. Major cultural function is to stabilize social patterns, to cultivate resistance to change. The central cultural arm of American society… the chief creator of synthetic cultural patterns. The observable, independent contributions of TV to culture are relatively small.
  16. 16. 3b’s of television Blurs traditional distinctions of people s views of their world. Blends TV s realitiesinto our cultural mainstream. Bends that mainstream to the interests of content owners.
  17. 17. resonance Accessibility principle Mainstreaming Mean worldindex
  18. 18. t h eORY critique
  19. 19. Methodology does not match conceptual reach of the theory. (Potter 1994) Failed to differentiate violence in different types of TV shows. Ignores differences in the way people interpret television realities. Assumes too much homogeneity of violence in TV shows. (Newcomb 1978) RANTS Focuses on heavy users of television. Is difficult to apply to media used less heavily than television.
  20. 20. RAVES Macro- and micro-level theories Cognizant of television s unique role Provides basis for social change Applies empirical study to widely held humanistic assumptions Redefines effects as more than observable behavior change
  21. 21. Relatedresearch In 2003, Hargreaves and Tiggemann studied the impact of viewing televised images of female attractiveness on the body dissatisfaction of young adolescent girls. Their findings show that televised images of attractiveness lead to increased body dissatisfaction and schema activation for girls as young as 13 years old. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 32, No. 5, October 2003, pp. 367‒373 (2003)
  22. 22. You know, who tells the stories of a culture really governs human behavior. It used to be the parent, the school, the church, the community. Now it's a handful of global conglomerates that have nothing to tell, but a great deal to sell. George Gerbner “”
  23. 23. Bryant, J., & Miron, D. (2004). Theory and research in mass communication. Journal of Communication, 54(4): 662-704. Gerbner, G. (1970). Cultural indicators: The case of violence in television drama. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 388(1), 69‒81. Gerbner, G. & Gross, L.(1976). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication, 26(2), 172-199. Griffin, Em (2012). A First Look at Communication Theory. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 363. Hargreaves, D., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). The effect of thin-ideal television commercialson body dissatisfaction and schema activation during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 367-373 Newcomb, H. (1978). Assessing the ViolenceProfile Studies of Gerbner and Gross: A Humanistic Critique and Suggestion. Communication Research, (5), 264 ‒ 282. Potter, W. J. (1994). Cultivation theory and research: A methodological critique Journalism Monographs, 147: 1-35. REFERENCES
  24. 24. dadaBELTRAN dadaspeaks.com dadaspeaks@gmail.com bootsLIQUIGAN
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Presentation and teaching material: Communication Theory - Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner. Research on Television and Violence based on the Cultural Indicators Project

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