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International INTERNATIONAL Journal of Mechanical JOURNAL Engineering OF and MECHANICAL Technology (IJMET), ISSN ENGINEERI...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), 
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online)...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), 
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online)...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), 
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online)...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), 
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online)...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), 
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online)...
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Production of composite material

  1. 1. International INTERNATIONAL Journal of Mechanical JOURNAL Engineering OF and MECHANICAL Technology (IJMET), ISSN ENGINEERING 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJMET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com 394 IJMET © I A E M E PRODUCTION OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL Kesavulu.A1, Mr. F.AnandRaju2, Dr. M.L.S.Deva Kumar3 1PG Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK, JNTUA, Puttur (India) 2Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK, JNTUA, Puttur (India) 3Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUA, Ananthapuramu, (india) ABSTRACT Metal matrix composites [MMC] are most important materials used for recent works in the industry and engineering applications. Fly ash particles are used in metal matrix composites, are low costand low density are available in large quantities of waste by product in power plants. The adding of fly ash with aluminium reinforcement by using stir casting process it can reduces the cost and density of aluminium material. Metal composite processes are improved mechanical properties like strength, hardness, low density and good wear resistance compared to other metals. In this study, aluminium clad and fly ash chemical analysis is studied before and after mixing and forming as particulate metal matrix composite and comparing the mechanical, physical properties of the MMC at varying % of fly ash addition. By comparison at various levels 15% of fly ash the MMC gives good mechanical and physical properties. This type of MMC is widely useful in light weight vehicles and aerospace application. Keywords: Aluminium, Chemical Analysis, Fly Ash, Mechanical Properties, Stir Casting. 1. INTRODUCTION Aluminium fly ash metal matrix composite is strengthen composite in which soft and ductile aluminium matrix is strengthen by the hard and brittle fly ash particles. Discontinuously reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composites are improving their high strength, high isotropic and good wear resistance. Discontinuously reinforcement aluminium composites have been developed in the various fields like aerospace, automotive and many other engineering applications [1]. Fly ash particles are low cost, low density and available in large quantities of waste by-product in thermal power plants and industries. In this study, fly ash particles are generated in the combustion of coal is chosen to reinforcement material. In India coal produces about 1100 lacks tons of fly ash per year from burning about 2500 lacks tons coal for power generation [2]. Present days
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME fly ash utilization improved and reduces the pollution in environment, now in present day’s fly ash is focusing and improving their investigating in various fields like MMCs, bricks, agricultural and etc. By adding fly ash reinforcement with commercially aluminium to make aluminium fly ash composite is improving their properties in strength and hardness and reduces the weight of the commercially aluminium. Hence, composites with fly ash reinforcement are overcome the cost barrier for wide applications. By adding of commercially aluminium with fly ashis decreases the need of intensive energy-aluminium, by resulting in energy savings [3]. By mixing the aluminium fly ash composites by using stir casting process method,in stir casting process is mixing conventionally in directly furnace it will reduce the time for mixing the aluminium and fly ash. Mixing the aluminium with fly ash particles in the ratio of 5% to 20% of weight in the commercially aluminium. 395 To studied on commercially aluminium and fly ash chemical analysis in testing Laborites. Hence, studied before and after physical and mechanical properties of aluminium fly ash metal matrix composite and also comparing with pure commercially aluminium. The aluminium fly ash composite are mainly used in aerospace, industries and other engineering application. 2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK 2.1 Raw Materials The matrix material is used in the experiment investigation of commercially aluminium. The fly ash was collected from the Lanco industries. The particle size of the fly as is sieved the range from (0.1-100 μm). 2.2 Melting and Casting First of all, 150gm of commercially aluminium was melted in a resistance heated furnace and casted in a mild steel die. The melt temperature was raised to 7200C. Then the aluminium-fly ash (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) composites were prepared by stir casting method. The 150gm of commercially aluminium and then (5, 10, 15, 20) wt% of fly ash was added to the aluminium melt for production of four different composites. The fly ash particles were preheated to 300oC for threehours to remove the moisture. Commercially aluminium was melted by raising its temperature to 720oC. Then the melt was stirred using a mild steel stirrer blades. Fly ash particles were added to the melt at the time of formation of vortex in the melt due to stirring. The melt temperature was maintained at 6800C to 7200C during the addition of the fly ash particles. Then the melt was casted in a mild steel die. The hardness measurement testing was carried out Al (5, 10, 15 and 20) wt% fly ash composites. The hardness of the samples was determined by Rock well hardness testing machine with 65 kgf load and diamond cone. The detention time for the hardness measurement was 15sec. The tensile strength of the samples was determined by the universal testing machine. 2.3 Mechanical Properties Observation Hardness Test Hardness test is done by the Rockwell Ahardness testing machine and taken the different composite samples. Tensile Test Tensile test is done by the universal testing machine by taken the different composite samples.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME 396 2.4 Design and Manufactured a Die Fig. 1: 2D Dimensions for die Fig. 2 Die 2.5 List of Experimental Work Figures Fig. 3 Furnace Fig. 5 Rock well hardness
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME Component Al Cr Cu Fe Mg Weight (%) 87.1 – 91.4 0.18 – 0.28 1.2 – 2 Max 0.5 2.1 – 2 Mn Other, each Other, total Si Ti Zn Max 0.3 Max 0.05 Max 0.15 Max 0.4 Max 0.2 5.1 – 6.1 397 Fig. 4: Sieve machine Fig. 6: Universal testing machine 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Chemical Analysis of Commercially Aluminium Table 1: Chemical analysis of commercially aluminium 3.2 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Commercially Aluminium Density – 2.81g/cm3 Hardness HRA – 50 Tensile strength – 572 MPa 3.3 Chemical Analysis of Fly Ash Table 2: Chemical analysis of fly ash COMPONENTS PERCENTAGE (%) Silicon dioxide (SiO2) 67.15 Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) 29.5 Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 0.15 Calcium oxide (Cao) 1.5 Magnesium oxide (Mgo) 1.7 3.4 Hardness Measurement Table 3: Hardness measurement Composite samples Hardness Aluminium (%) Fly ash (%) HRA 95 5 53 90 10 56.2 85 15 58.9 80 20 60.15
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME 5 10 15 20 Fly ash (%wt.) 5 10 15 20 Fly ash (% of wt.) 398 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 Hardness HRA Fig. 7: Graph showing variations in Fly ash vs. hardness The above table shows that incorporation of fly ash particles in Aluminium matrix causes reasonable increase in hardness. The strength of the composite can be due to dispersion strengthening as well as due to particle reinforcement. Thus, fly ash as filler in aluminium casting is low cost, decreases density and increase hardness which are needed in various industries like automotive etc. 3.5 Tensile Strength Measurements Table 4: Tensile strength measurement Composite samples Ultimate Tensile Aluminium (%) Fly ash (%) strength (MPa) 95 5 578 90 10 585 85 15 591.3 80 20 588.6 595 590 585 580 575 570 Tensile stregth in MPa Fig. 8: Graph showing variations in Fly ash vs. Tensile strength The above table shows that the tensile strength will be increasing up to sample 3 (15%). Hence the hardness increases the tensile strength will decreasing.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 394-399 © IAEME 399 4. CONCLUSION 1. From the study it’s concluded that we can use fly ash for the production of composites and can turn industrial waste. 2. Fly ash up to 20% of weight can be successfully added to aluminium by stir casting methods to produce composites. 3. The density of aluminium-fly ash is decreased with increase in addition of fly ash and the density will be reduced. 4. The hardness of aluminium-fly ash has increased with increase in addition of fly ash the hardness will be increased. 5. The tensile strength of aluminium-fly ash is increased up to 15% of fly ash is added in the aluminium. 5. REFERENCES [1] Mahendra.K.V and Radhakrishna. K, Castable composites and their application in automobiles, Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering, (2007): pp. 135-140 [2] P. Shanmughasundaram1, R. Subramanian2 “Some Studies on Aluminium-Fly Ash Composites Fabricated by Two Step Stir Casting Method”, European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.63 No.2 (2011), pp.204-218. [3] P. K. Rohatgi and R. Q. Guo, “Low Cost Cast Aluminium – Fly Ash Composites for Ultra light Automotive Application”, TMS Annual Meeting, Automotive Alloys, (1997) [4] Deepak singla1, S.R. Mediratta2, “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Al 7075-Fly Ash Composite Material”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology ISSN: 2319-8753 Vol. 2, Issue 4, April 2013 [5] H.C. Anilkumar1, H.S. Hebbar2 and K.S. Ravishankar3 “Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Reinforced Aluminium Alloy (Al6061) Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol.6 (2011), No.1, 41-45 [6] sankar.L1, Srinivasan.R2, Viswanathan.P3 and Subramanian.R4, “Comparison Study of Al-Fly Ash Composites In Automobile Clutch Plates”, from internet [7] Vivekananthan1 M. and Senthamarai2 k., “Experimental Evaluation of Aluminium-Fly Ash Composite Material to Increase the Mechanical Wear Behaviour by Stir Casting Method”, CARE Journal of Applied Research (ISSN 2321-4090) [8] K.V. MAHENDRA1, K. R ADHAKRISHNA2, “Fabrication of Al–4.5% Cu Alloy with Fly Ash Metal Matrix Composites and Its Characterization”, material science-poland, Vol.25, No.1 2007 [9] Hull D, Clyne T W, “An Introduction to Composite Materials, Cambridge”, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996 [10] Matthews F.L., Ralwlings R.D, “Composite materials engineering and science”, Glasgow, UK, Champaman and hall, 1994 [11] DRDO “Composite Materials”, Popular Science Technology (PST) series is being published by DESIDOC, was published in the year 1990 [12] Rohatgi P.K, Metal-matrix Composites, Defence Science Journal, Vol 43, No 4, (1993): pp 323-349. [13] R.Maguteeswarana, Dr. R.Sivasubramanian and V.Suresh, “Study and Investigation of Analysis of Metal Matrix Composite”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 171 - 188, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [14] R.Maguteeswarana, Dr. R.Sivasubramanian and V.Suresh, “Methodology Study and Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Metal Matrix Composites” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 217 - 224, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
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    Nov. 15, 2020

Production of composite material

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