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Human Computer Interaction of an Information System
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Human computer interaction

Abstract
Human–computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use. The field formally emerged out of computer science, cognitive psychology and industrial design through the 1960s, formulating guidelines for the development of interactive computer systems highlighting usability concerns for improved interfaces. Computing devices are becoming more prevalent and integrated into both our social and work spaces.HCI therefore plays an important role in ensuring that computer systems are not only functional but also respect the needs and capabilities of the humans that use them.
HCI encompasses not only ease of use but also new interaction techniques. It involves input and output devices and the interaction techniques that use them; presentation of information, control and monitoring of computer’s actions and the processes that developers follow when creating interfaces. In this seminar, emphasis is laid on the movement of a user’s eyes which can provide a convenient, natural, and high-bandwidth source of additional user input. Some of the human factors and technical considerations that arise in trying to use eye movements as an input medium and the first eye movement-based interaction techniques are discussed in this section.




AYUSHA PATNAIK,
SEM - 6th
TRIDENT ACADEMY OF TECHNOLOGY,
BBSR

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Human computer interaction

  1. 1. BY, AYUSHA PATNAIK
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION STUDY OF INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN AND COMPUTER TO DESIGN HUMAN-CENTRED SKILLS, SO THAT THERE ARE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS TO CREATE EXCELLENT INTERFACES WITH ANY TECHNOLOGY. • IT IS THE HOTTEST TOPIC AMONG IT PROFFESIONALS OF TODAY • SERIOUS RESEARCH IN THIS AREA HAS JUST BEGUN WHICH PROMISES OF FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGING COMPUTING • SPECTACULAR GROWTH OF WORLD WIDE WEB IS THE DIRECT RESULT OF HCI RESEARCH • HCI WOULD PLAY A LEADING ROLE IN THE CREATION OF TOMMOROW’S EXCITING NEW USER INTERFACE SOFTWARE
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE  How important is it for a practitioner to have a deep understanding of the visual, intellectual, motor, and memory capabilities of the users when they are designing commercial systems?  How important is it to have the knowledge of implementing empirical research techniques for evaluations when they are rarely used?
  4. 4. COMPUTER ELEMENTS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES MEMORY PROCESSING A computer without human
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER INPUT DEVICE OUTPUT DEVICE MEMORY PROCESSING TEXT ENTRY POINTING 3-D INTERACTION DEVICES SHORT TERM MEMORY LONG TERM MEMORY
  6. 6. HUMAN IN TERMS OF COMPUTER ELEMENTS INPUT – OUTPUT CHANNELS M E M O R Y PROCESSINGOF INFORMATION
  7. 7. USER INPUT SYSTEMOUTPUT • THE INTERACTION FRAME WORK HAS FOUR PARTS
  8. 8. Stages of design process :  Knowing users  Observation of users  Creating user friendly designs  Complexity of design DESIGN Know user observ ation Creation of design Complex ity of design
  9. 9. In order to develop a user-centered design the following steps should be followed :  Data Collection  Data Analysis  User Modelling  Design  Prototyping  Evaluation
  10. 10. INTERACTION STYLES Some common styles of interaction are :  Command line interface  Menus  Natural Language  Query dialogue  Form-fills and spreadsheets  Wimp WIMP interface : oWindows oIcons oMenu oPointer
  11. 11. INTERACTION DEVICES COMPUTER INPUT DEVICES • QWERTY keyboard • Special Keyboards • Light pen • Scanner etc. OUTPUT DEVICES • LCD • CRT • PRINTERS HUMAN INPUT – OUTPUT DEVICES  SIGHT  SOUND  TOUCH
  12. 12. THE EYE :
  13. 13. TYPES OF EYE MOVEMENTS • SACCADE • FIXATION OF EYE • OCCURS IN RESPONSE TO MOVING OBJECT • NYSTAGMUS • RELATIVE MOVEMENT OF EYE WITH RESPECT TO ONE ANOTHER
  14. 14. WHAT TO MEASURE ? •Generally visual line of gaze is measured •Only one eye is tracked METHODS :
  15. 15.  SIMPLEST EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE  USES ELECTRODES PLACED ON THE SKIN AROUND THE EYE  MEASURES CHANGES IN ORIENTATION OF THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE EXISTING BETWEEN CORNEA AND RETINA  USEFUL FOR MEASURING RELATIVE EYE MOVEMENTS  COVERS WIDE RANGE OF EYE MOVEMENTS  BUT ACCURACY LEVEL IS LOW  USEFUL FOR DIAGNOSING NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS REVEALED BY EYE MOVEMENTS
  16. 16. MECHANICAL METHODS  LEAST USER FRIENDLY APPROACH  USES NON-SLIPPING CONTACT LENS – FITS OVER CORNEAL BULGE  TO HOLD IN PLACE SLIGHT SUCTION IS APPLIED  THE LENS HAS SMALL MECHANICAL LEVER, MAGNETIC COIL OR MIRROR ATTACHED FOR TRACKING  EXTREMELY ACCURATE  CAN EVEN INVESTIGATE TINY EYE MOVEMENTS  BUT, VERY AWKWARD AND UNCOMFORTABLE, COVERS ONLY LIMITED RANGE INTERFERES WITH BLINKING
  17. 17. OPTICAL/VIDEO METHOD SINGLE POINT TWO POINT
  18. 18.  USES REMOTE IMAGING OF VISIBLE FEATURE LOCATED ON THE EYE SUCH AS BOUNDARY BETWEEN SCLERA AND IRIS
  19. 19.  HOWEVER THIS BOUNDARY IS ONLY PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT ANY ONE TIME  THE OUTLINE OF THE PUPIL CAN ALSO BE CONSIDERED o BUT THIS WORKS BEST FOR ONLY LIGHT COLORED EYES o BUT TO OVERCOME THIS PROBLEM PUPIL CAN BE ILLUMINATED REFLECTION OF THE FRONT OF CORNEA OF LIGHT BEAM SHOWN AT THE EYE ANY OF THESE COULD BE USED WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC OR VIDEO RECORDING BUT A DEMERIT IS THAT THE HEAD IS TO BE HELD STATIONARY TO BE SURE THAT ANY MOVEMENT DETECTED REPRESENTS MOVEMENT OF EYE  A BITE BOARD IS CUSTOMARLIY USED
  20. 20. TWO POINT  AS THE HEAD MOVES THE LINE OF GAZE CHANGES  SO THIS CAN BE CONSIDERED AS ANOTHER TYPE OF EYE MOVEMENT  TO DETECT THIS KIND TWO POINT SYSTEM IS USED  THE HEAD NO LONGER NEEDS TO BE RIGIDLY FIXED ALTHOUGH IT MUST STAY WITHIN THE CAMERA RANGE  BOTH CORNEAL REFLECTION AND OUTLINE OF THE PUPIL ARE TRACKED  INFRARED LIGHT IS USED  THE ABSOLUTE VISUAL LINE OF GAZE IS COMPUTED FROM THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO TRACKED POINTS
  21. 21.  HCI IS EMERGING WITH VARIOUS OTHER DESIGNS CONCERNED WITH VOICE AND TOUCH SENSORY ORGANS  VARIOUS PROPOSALS HAVE BEEN PUT FORWARD FOR EMOTION DETECTION, GESTURE DETECTION  IN EMOTION DETECTION THE PUPILLIARY ACTIONS WOULD HAVE TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION ALL THESE ADVANCEMENTS WOULD BRING INTO SOCIETY A NEW ERA OF COMPUTERS
  22. 22. HCI IS VERY RICH IN TERMS OF DISCIPLINES AS WELL AS OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH  WHATEVER WE DISCUSSED WAS JUST A SMALL SUBSET OF THE TOPICS IN HCI  STUDY OF USER INTERFACE IS A DOUBLE SIDED APPROACH  BY MANIPULATING EYE BEHAVIOUR WE CAN DESIGN INTERFACES BETWEEN COMPUTER AND HUMAN EYE  STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN WE CAN DESIGN BETTER INTERFACES FOR THE USER  WORK IN THIS DOMAIN HAS JUST BEGUN.THERE IS A LONG WAY TO GO BY STUDYING HOW HUMAN MIND WORKS
  23. 23. 1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION TECHNOLOGY – BRAD A. MYERS 2. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – MATTHIAS RAUTERBERG 3. HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – Prof. Dr. KEITH ANDREWS 4. USABILITY DESIGN – JAN GULLIKSEN 5. FUTURE OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – MICHAEL H. COEN 6. USER CENTERED DESIGN – NICKY DANINO 7. EYES AT THE INTERFACE – R.A. BOLTZ
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Abstract Human–computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use. The field formally emerged out of computer science, cognitive psychology and industrial design through the 1960s, formulating guidelines for the development of interactive computer systems highlighting usability concerns for improved interfaces. Computing devices are becoming more prevalent and integrated into both our social and work spaces.HCI therefore plays an important role in ensuring that computer systems are not only functional but also respect the needs and capabilities of the humans that use them. HCI encompasses not only ease of use but also new interaction techniques. It involves input and output devices and the interaction techniques that use them; presentation of information, control and monitoring of computer’s actions and the processes that developers follow when creating interfaces. In this seminar, emphasis is laid on the movement of a user’s eyes which can provide a convenient, natural, and high-bandwidth source of additional user input. Some of the human factors and technical considerations that arise in trying to use eye movements as an input medium and the first eye movement-based interaction techniques are discussed in this section. AYUSHA PATNAIK, SEM - 6th TRIDENT ACADEMY OF TECHNOLOGY, BBSR

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